Styles of Leadership Survey
Purpose: The Styles of Leadership Survey (SLS) assesses leadership styles in terms of "concern for people" and "concern for purpose." Used with non-management supervisory personnel, campus and community groups, volunteer organizations, and administrative personnel.
Model: Leadership Grid, based on Robert Blake and Jane Mouton's Managerial Grid.
Scoring: Self-scored
Format: A 60-item, paper/pencil self-report inventory assessing leadership behavior in terms of the Blake-Mouton model of purpose-people concerns. The survey employs a 10-point Williams-Hall scale which combines rank-ordering with equal-interval scaling properties. The Leadership Grid is an extension of Likert's Production-Morale Theory and measures two dimensions of leadership behavior: concerns for people and concerns for purpose. The inventory yields analysis of overall leadership style, including four components of leadership: philosophy, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Normative data are provided. The inventory may be administered in conjunction with the Leadership Appraisal Survey (LAS) for a more complete assessment of leadership style and effectiveness.

Note: The SLS uses the same items found in the Styles of Management Inventory, normed on a sample of people in leadership positions.

Brief Description: This survey is designed to provide individuals with information about the way they lead -- or would lead -- under a variety of conditions. A wide range of leadership situations is covered in order to provide participants with meaningful information about themselves.

Employing a two-dimensional grid format wherein "concern for people" and "concern for purpose" are the dimensions, the SLS is valuable for non-management supervisory personnel, campus and community groups, volunteer organizations, and administrative personnel. The SLS affords a self-assessment of leadership behavior and yields analysis of overall leadership style including four components of leadership: philosophy, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

Sample Item: Participants respond to each question by placing each response provided on the point on the scale which would represent how characterstic that response is for them.
1. Most types of internal activity stem from organizational goals. Once these goals have been identified, plans and policies must be drafted which facilitate goal attainment. How do you, as a leader, handle the planning function in your organization?
a.
After consulting with members, I interpret the requirements of organizational policy and develop the final plan.
b. I plan, develop and interpret policy with the major objective in mind keeping the morale of members high.
c. I jointly plan, develop, and interpret policies with members in order to arrive at a common perception of the goals and ways of attaining them.
d. I plan and/or interpret the objectives of the organization for members so that they fully understand what management requires of them.
e. I rely primarily on superiors for plans and interpretation of organizational policies and pass them on as clearly as possible.

Companion Piece: Leadership Appraisal Survey (LAS)
Video Support: None
Languages: English
Authors: Jay Hall, Ph.D. and Martha S. Williams, Ph.D.
Publication Date: Copyright - 1968, Teleometrics
Revision Date: Copyright - 1986,  1994,  1995 Teleometrics International, Inc.
Norms: In this instrument norms provide a reference point in the form of standardized T-scores. So that a respondent can compare his or her leadership practices with those of others, T-scores have been generated from a substantial normative sample of individuals who have completed the SLS. The current normative sample is 2,844.
Reliability
and
Validity:
The SLS is an adaptation of Teleometrics' Styles of Management Inventory (SMI) and good construct and concurrent validities have been established by a strong correlation with the Edwards Personal Preference Scale (EPPS) and Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale. The median coefficient of stability is greater than .70, indicating fair reliability. The SLS is deemed suitable for both concept and diagnostic training and research purposes.

Bibliography

BALL, Warren J. Pastoral performance: An evaluation of three key roles by pastor and people. A thesis-project: Eastern Baptist Seminary, April, 1976.

BLANKENSHIP, Barbara S. The impact of a leadership workshop on the development of college student leaders' styles of leadership. A doctoral dissertation: The University of Mississippi, in preparation, November, 1982.

COLES, Laurence W. A study of the differential effects of two leadership training styles on United Methodist adult groups. A doctoral dissertation: Indiana University, 1973.

MOORE, James E. The development and assessment of a leadership training laboratory for student leaders. A master's thesis: The Ohio State University, 1973.

TAYLOR, Timothy D. A study of the effect of managerial style on management development. A master's thesis: Pepperdine University, August, 1975.

WEED, Stan E., MITCHELL, Terrence R. and MOFFITT, Weldon. Leadership style, subordinate personality and task type as predictors of performance and satisfaction with supervision. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975.

Related Readings


BIGGERSTAFF, M. Diane. Leadership styles in an internal administrative program: Dallas County Community College District. A doctoral dissertation: University of Texas at Austin, 1977.

BLAKE, Robert R. and MOUTON, Jane S. The Managerial Grid. Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1964.

BLAKE, Robert R. and MOUTON, Jane S. The Managerial Grid. Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1978.

DONNELL, Susan M. and HALL, Jay. Men and women as managers: A significant case difference. Organizational Dynamics, Spring, 1980. Also in J. HALL (ed.), Models for Management: The Structure of Competence. The Woodlands, Texas: Woodstead Press, 1988. pp.467-486.

GAROVE, William E. and HANDLEY, Edward E. The effect of a five-day simulation training experience in reality-based simulation on selected management behavior of superintendents of institutions for the mentally retarded. A doctoral dissertation: University of Pittsburgh, 1972.

HALL, Jay. Communication revisited. California Management Review, Vol. 15, No.3, Spring, 1973. pp. 56-67. Also in GIBSON, IVANCEVICH and DONNELLY (eds.), Readings in Organizations. Dallas: Business Publications, Inc., 1976. pp. 281-299.

HALL, Jay. Management synthesis: An Anatomy of management style. In J. HALL (ed.),Models for Management: The Structure of Competence. The Woodlands, Texas: Woodstead Press, 1988. pp.445-466.

HALL, Jay. Managerial competence: Working productively with most of the people most of the time. In J. Hall (ed.), Models for Management: The Structure of Competence. The Woodlands, Texas: Woodstead Press, 1988. pp. 487-496.

HALL, Jay. To achieve or not: The manager's choice. California Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Summer, 1976. Also in J. HALL (ed.) Models for Management: The Structure of Competence. The Woodlands, Texas: Woodstead Press, 1988, pp. 497-519.

HALL, Jay. What makes a manager good, bad or average? Psychology Today, August, 1976.

HALL, Jay and DONNELL, Susan M. Managerial achievement: The personal side of behavioral theory. Human Relations, Vol. 32, No. 1, January, 1979.

NEGRELLI, Michael J. A master's thesis (title unknown): Pace College, Westchester County, New York, 1972.

O'LEARY, Vincent and DUFFEE, David. Managerial behavior and correctional policy. School of Criminal Justice, State University of New York at Albany.

STINE, John Carlton. A study of perceptions of the relationship between the organizational climate of elementary schools and managerial styles of their principals. A doctoral dissertation: University of Pittsburgh, 1975.

THOMAS, John E. The evaluation of a management training seminar using superior and subordinate ratings of participants' performance. A master's thesis: California State University, Long Beach, August, 1977.

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